Summary: Fieldtrip Activity of GITMSC OF AAPG by Mr. Rasyid Mustafa (Lecturer at ITM), Takengon, Aceh, Indonesia, April 03rd, 2016

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Fieldtrip Activity of GITMSC OF AAPG by Mr. Rasyid Mustafa (Lecturer at ITM), Takengon, Aceh, Indonesia, April 03rd, 2016:

Fieldtrip that held on 03rd April, 2016 at Takengon, Aceh, Indonesia that have a title “Macro Fossil Identification and Determination of Depositional Environment” , followed by 42 students Geology, lecturer and include commitee of GITMSC OFF AAPG.The event that held by Executive Geology Institute Technology of Medan Student Chapter of American Association of Petroleum Geologists, this programme is held caused less knowledge about Communications Engineering Geology Applications in Macro Fossil Identification and Determination of Depositional Environment. In this event as speakers is Mr.Rasyid Mustafa as a lecturer in Istitute Technology of Medan and also as a senior geologist.

Macrofossils are preserved organic remains large enough to be visible without a microscope. Most fossils discussed in the article Fossil are macrofossils. The term macrofossil stands in opposition to the term microfossil. Microfossils, by contrast, require substantial magnification for evaluation by fossil-hunters or professional paleontologists. As a result, most fossils observed in the field and most “museum-quality” specimens are macrofossils and to fossilized remains of animals or plants should be immediately covered with sediment. By experts distinguish several kinds of fossils. There was the usual rock fossils, fossils formed in amber, fossils ter, such as that formed in the La Brea tar wells in California. Animal or plant that was presumed to be extinct, but there are still so-called living fossils. The most common fossil skeleton is left as shells, teeth and bones. Soft tissue fossils are very rare.

Fossilization is a process of accumulation of remains of animals or plants that accumulate in sediments or sediments either experiencing preservation as a whole, in part or in trace amounts, living fossil is a term used a species of life that resembles a species known only from fossils. Some include a living fossil coelacanth and ginkgo trees. Living fossils can also refer to a living species that do not have any other close species or a small group of close species that do not have other close species. Examples of this last criterion is the nautilus. Most fossils are found in sedimentary rocks (sediments) whose surface is open. Rock that contains many fossils called fosiliferus. Types of fossils contained in the rocks depending on the type of environment scientifically sediments deposited. Marine sediments, from the shoreline and shallow seas, usually contains the most fossils.

Fossils formed from the process of the destruction process relics of once-living organisms. This often happens when a plant or animal is buried in oxygen-free environment. The existing fossil rarely preserved in its original form. In some cases, the mineral content change chemically or their remnants dissolved all so it was replaced with mold. Illustration that describes the process of living beings that died were buried, become fossilized, and is found and the study of the remains of ancient organisms either fossils or traces of life called paleontology and for the other sciences, there is some science that is closely related to paleontology, among others:

  • Biostratigraphy

Biostratigraphy is the science of determining the age of rocks using fossils contained therein. Usually aim for the correlation, which indicates that a particular horizon in a geological section represent the same time period with another horizon in some other parts. Fossil useful because sediments of the same age can look completely different because of local variations in sedimentation environment. For example, a portion can be composed of clay and marl, while others are more limestone Kapuran, but if the content of the fossil species are similar, both these sediments may have been deposited at the same time. Ammonites, graptolites and trilobites are index fossils are widely used in biostratigraphy. Microfossils, such as acritarchs, chitinozoa, conodonts, cysts dinoflagellates, pollen, Sapura and foraminifera are also often used. Different fossils can function well on different aged sediments; eg trilobites, especially useful for old Cambrian sediments. To function properly, the fossils used must be widespread geographically, so that it can be in different places-many. They must also be short-lived as a species, so a period of time in which they can be incorporated into the sediment is relatively narrow, the longer the life time of species, the more inaccurate the correlation, so the fossils are evolving rapidly, such as ammonites, is preferable to form evolved much more slowly , as nautoloid.

  • Chronostratigraphy

Chronostratigraphy is a branch of stratigraphy that studies the life of rock strata in relation to time.

The main purpose of Chronostratigraphy is to arrange the order of precipitation and the settling time of the entire rock in a geological formation, and ultimately, the entire geologic record of Earth.

Standard stratigraphic nomenclature is a system that is based on the time interval Chronostratigraphy paleontology defined by a collection of fossils were recognized (biostratigraphy). Interest Chronostratigraphy is to provide a means for the determination of the age of this fossil collection interval.

  • mikropaleontologi

Mikropaleontologi is a branch of palaeontology that studies microfossils. Microfossils, fossil generally are sized no larger than four millimeters, and generally smaller than one millimeter, so as to learn it takes a light or electron microscope. Fossils that can be studied with the naked eye or with a small magnification power tool, such as a magnifying glass, can be grouped as makrofosil. Strictly speaking, it is difficult to determine whether an organism can be classified as microfossils or not, so there is no size limit is clear.

  • paleobotany

Paleobotany or palaeobotani (from a Greek word meaning old paleon and botany, the science of plants), is a branch of paleontology devoted to learning about plants in the past.

  • paleozoology

Paleozoology or palaeozoology where a branch of paleontology or paleobiology, which aims to find and identify fossils of multicellular systems geology or archeology, to use the fossil in environmental reconstruction and prehistoric ecology.

  • Palynology

Palynology is the study polinomorf current and fossils, including pollen, spores, dinoflagellates, cysts, acritarchs, chitinozoa, and scolecodont, along with particles of organic material and kerogen contained in sediments and sedimentary rocks.

This event can give a lot of opportunities for students to receive more knowledge and enhance their perception outside the classes about knowledge and also training in field of geology. We believe this program is important for those who want to be a geologist. It also give great opportunity to establish a good relationship among industry, AAPG, educational institution and students. Hopefully, this activity done well and will more knowledge to student about Macro Fossil Identification and Determination of Depositional Environment”, and get motivation or inspiration to can join in mining, oil and gas industry.

Support thank’s to AAPG, AAPG Asia Pacific Region, ITM, HMTG”TOBA”ITM, SM-IAGI ITM, and other.

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