Summary Course Activity : “Basic Petroleum Geochemistry & Job Career Sharing Knowledge” by Total EP

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A Short Course held on December 05th ,2012 at the Lecturer Meeting Room of Institute Technology Medan with the title  “Basic Petroleum Geochemistry & Job Career Sharing Knowledge”, attended by 95 students of Geology include Mining, and lecturer from two departments. The objectives of this course to get the good-shaped knowledge on Petroleum Geochemistry and also sharing about career. In this event, Mr. Fuad Ahmadin Nasution as Exploration Geologist Total EP, acted as the speaker.

This event opened by Head of Geological Engineering Department Institute Technology of Medan is Mr. Gustam Lubis. ST, MT, with proudly say thanks to Total EP for coming to Institute Technology of Medan for sharing knowledge and information to Geology and Mining students. We believed that course already increased the knowledge and skill in oil and gas industry. Another welcome speech was coming from Mr. Ir. Eka Onwardana, MT as Faculty Advisor of GITMSC of AAPG said gladness and thank to Total EP and him for  theirs visit to Institute Technology of Medan also as alumnus of ITM. In addition, Mr. Ir. Eka Onwardana, MT appreciate the students to attend the short course.

Total EP is a big company in the world whisch is the headquarter of Total EP is in La Defense, Paris – France and operated in more than 130 countries and use more than 3000 employements. In Indonesia, Total EP have  7 (seven) field as follow as Tunu, Sifi – Nubi, Tambora, Peciko, Handil, South Mahakam, Bekapai with > 2000 wells. If one well dry, Total EP operation leave that well and looking for other well.

Basic Petroleum System and Petroleum Geochemistry

Petroleum system is the essential elements and processes and all genetically related hydrocarbon that occur in petroleum shows, and accumulations whose provenance is a single pod of active source rock.The petroleum system elements such as Source rock with generation process, Migration route with migration process, reservoir rock with accumulation process, seal rock with preservation process also trap with timing critical.

Petroelum Geochemistry is application of chemical principles to the study of the origin, migration, accumulation, and alteration of petroleum (oil and gas) and the use of this knowledge in exploring for and recovering petroleum. (Hunt, 1996). With petroleum geochemistry predict the fluid (oil/gas/water) in a prospect ahead of drilling in terms of its phase (liquid/gas), composition (GOR, CGR, sulphur, wax, etc.), and properties (API gravity, viscosity), determine volumetrics of petroleum generated, migrated, and accumulated in a basin, determine how many oil and gas families are present in a basin,

relate those oil and gas families to known source rocks and basin geology, predict in-reservoir alteration (e.g. biodegradation, oil to gas cracking), predict/understand intra-field/-reservoir petroleum variations, and predict lithological variations in a prospect and overpressures ahead of drilling.

Through geochemistry can to calculate the estimation reserves because if we have reserves from geochemistry calculation but we have a place (limited or not).  predict the fluid (oil/gas/water) in a prospect ahead of drilling in terms of its phase (liquid/gas), composition (GOR, CGR, sulphur, wax, etc.), and properties (API gravity, viscosity), determine volumetrics of petroleum generated, migrated, and accumulated in a basin, determine how many oil and gas families are present in a basin, relate those oil and gas families to known source rocks and basin geology, predict in-reservoir alteration (e.g. biodegradation, oil to gas cracking), predict/understand intra-field/-reservoir petroleum variations, and predict lithological variations in a prospect and overpressures ahead of drilling. Source Rock Richness is determined by measurement of the Total Organic Carbon content of the rock (Leco Analyser). Source rock have Total Organic Carbon : Poor <0.50%, Fair 0.50% – 1.00%, Good 1.00% – 2.00%, Very Good 2.00% – 4.00%, Excellent >4.00%. In general, shales with less than 0.50% TOC or carbonates with less than 0.20% TOC will not be good source rocks and are not worthy of further study. An exception to this, however, is if a rock contains a predominance of algal kerogen (highly oil prone), in which case lower TOC values can still be considered.

Fault zones can act as both conduits and barriers to secondary migrtion. The material crushed by the frictional movement of the fault, the fault gouge, is frequently impermeable and does not allow the passage of petroleum. Clay smeared along fault planes also blocks petroeum migration. Fractures formed in either the footwall or hangingwall, if they remain open, may form effective vertical migration pathways. This may occur in the uplifted hangingwalls of compressive faults on release of compressive stresses. Tensional fractures in the crestal zones of anticlinal structures may also allow migration of petroleum. Lateral migration will tend to be inhibited by the presence of faults, since they interrupt the lateral continuity of the carrier bed.

GITMSC OF AAPG Last Activity in This Year : One Day Course by Total EP Indonesie

GITMSC Of AAPG Present Last Event in This Period : 

“Basic Petroleum Geochemistry & Job Career Sharing Knowledge “

This event will be held :

Date/Day       :  Saturday, December 01st, 2012

Speaker         :  Fuad Ahmadin Nasution (Exploration Geologist Total EP Indonesie)

Place & Time : Lecturer Meeting Institute Technology of Medan at 08.00 AM – 04.00 PM

Fee Only IDR 12.000,00 (Member) and IDR 15.000 (Non-Members)

Offered facilities :  Snack, Lunch, Certificate and Knowldge & Information.

Let’s to registration and enjoy this event with other GITMSC of AAPG Members or Non-Members to get some knowledge and information. Don’t leave this last opportunity !!!

Summary Course : “Tangguh Gas Field : History, Tools and Technology and Integrated Geology, & Geophysic (G&G) and Career” by BP Indonesia

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Tangguh LNG is the third LNG hub in Indonesia. In March 2005 the Government of Indonesia gave the go ahead for the Tangguh LNG project in Bintuni Bay of West Papua. Taking its name from the Indonesia word for “resilient and strong”, Tangguh is centered on the Bintuni Bay area of Papua, Indonesia – around seven hours flight from Jakarta. With 37.16% interest in the project, BP Indonesia is the operator of Tangguh under a production sharing contract with BPMIGAS (Indonesia’s regulatory body for oil and gas upstream activities). In October 2007 the project completed its planned loan agreement totaling US$3.5 billion with several international banks to finance the development of the LNG plant. The external financing highlights investors’ confidence in the project.

The Tangguh gas fields, situated near the Bintuni Bay region of West Papua province, were discovered by ARCO Exploration in the mid-1990s. Called ‘Tangguh’ after the Indonesian word for ‘resilient’, the reserves are estimated to be over 18.3 trillion square feet. These fields have the potential to become one of the world’s premier natural gas supplies. The Tangguh LNG project was initiated by ARCO and Pertamina in 1997 to exploit these gas fields. The six fields include the two super-giant gas fields of Wiriagar Deep and Vorwata as well as the smaller adjacent fields of Roabiba, Ofaweri, Wos and Ubadari. The project began production in 2009.

The Tangguh LNG project involves tapping the Tangguh fields, processing the gas into LNG and loading it for shipment. The project includes two unmanned offshore production platforms that pump gas from the reservoir and then relay it through subsea pipelines to an LNG processing facility in Bintuni Bay, location of the village of Tanah Merah. The LNG gas liquefaction plant consists of two liquefaction trains with a combined capacity of seven million tonnes per year of LNG. The first train began production in mid-June, while the second train came onstream in the third quarter of 2009. There are also associated jetties and marine facilities of a tanker terminal to export the gas via tanker to markets in East Asia and North America. The land acquired for the LNG processing facility measures 3,200ha, much of which remains an environmental green zone as the initial facility only required 800ha. An investment of $3bn has been made into the project so far.

On consultation with the local community construction of the processing plant has resulted in the relocation of the people of Tanah Merah, a village that has been inhabited by 127 families, and Onar. The land was acquired in 1999 and involved a negotiation of resettlement agreements, specific agreements detailing BP and community agreements (including village and house design) were developed in 2002 and 2003 (the village move was completed in 2004. The contractors responsible for construction of new village facilities for Tanah Merah are Panata Thiess Joint Operation and for Onar PT Firma Irian Djaya.

Summary Fieldtrip : “Microphaleonthology and How To Identification Fossil Sample in Telaga Said (North Sumatra Basin)”

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Micropaleontology (also sometimes spelled as micropalaeontology) is the branch of palaeontology that studies microfossils. Microfossils are fossils generally not larger than four millimeters, and commonly smaller than one millimeter, the study of which requires the use of light or electron microscopy. Fossils which can be studied with the naked eye or low-powered magnification, such as a hand lens, are referred to as macrofossils. Obviously, it can be hard to decide whether or not some organisms should be considered microfossils, and so there is no fixed size boundary.

For example, some colonial organisms, such as bryozoa (especially the Cheilostomata) have relatively large colonies, but are classified on the basis of fine skeletal details of the tiny individuals of the colony. Most bryozoan specialists tend to consider themselves paleontologists, rather than micropaleontologists, but many micropaleontologists also study bryozoa.

Fossils cannot be properly identified until they have been separated from their discovery site and cleaned. Identifying a fossil may be possible from prior study, or it may require genetic or carbon-14 testing to determine age. Fossils that have been identified are usually organized according to the requirements of a specific project or expedition. Numerous bone fragments and small fossils may be organized to re-create the skeleton of a person or animal. Fossils might also be organized by weight, size, age or the geographic area in which they were located. Organization is usually geared toward illustrating a broad interpretation. Interpretation of fossils frequently focuses on the whole, rather than its parts. Fossils are analyzed in comparison and contrast to small areas, regions and entire ecosystems. Interpretation is often intended to help form a hypothesis about how an extinct creature lived and interacted in its natural environment.

Modern exploration of the North Sumatra Basin has emphasized the need for revision and refinement of former rock stratigraphic concepts and nomenclature, particularly of the transgressive pre-Baong sediments. Early Tertiary sedimentation began in isolated sub-basins; mica quartz breccias, quartz conglomerates, and coarse-grained mica sandstones (Parapat Formation) were deposited as fluvial fans along the edges of the basins. These were overlain and interfingered basin-wards with dark carbonaceous shales and marls of euxinic environment (Bampo Formation). In Early Miocene, subsidence slowed and became more uniform throughout the basin, resulting in wide-spread carbonate-arenaceous deposition. Arenaceous sediments with some interbedded carbonates (Belumai Formation) of shallow marine environment were deposited in the central and south-southeastern region, while limestone, marls and shales. (Peutu Formation) of more open marine environment were deposited in the northwestern region. The type of sediments deposited continued in part, however, to reflect local pre-Tertiary topography and block faulting. These Lower Miocene formations are in turn overlain by the basin-wide, lithologically uniform shales of the Baong Formation, marking the maximum Tertiary transgression of the North Sumatra Basin. The formation names in the parentheses above are reaffirmed, or proposed, as terms designating formations. With the different formation in North Sumatra Basin especially in Telaga Said so that can to analyze the microfossil in Laboratory.

Summary Course Activity : “Introduction to Shale Gas Formation Evaluation” by Halliburton

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Shale is tricky. Generally homogenous, the fine-grained rock actually comprises a variety of formations characterized by differing geology, geochemistry, geo-mechanics and production mechanisms – all of which can differ from shale to shale, and even within the same shale. If we look by the petrophysics analyze, Shalestone is clays minerals rich and no clay minerals is Siltstone.
Shale gas has been solve since three years ago because in America, Shale gas can to increasing the American Economics. In Indonesia, Shale gas can’t to increasingly because low the technology and only some company exploration this unconventional energy but Indonesia being increasing this energy. Shale gas refers to natural gas that is trapped within shale formations. Shales are fine-grained sedimentary rocks that can be rich sources of petroleum and natural gas, or Shale gas is natural gas formed from being trapped within shale formations. Shale gas has become an increasingly important source of natural gas in the United States over the past decade, and interest has spread to potential gas shales in the rest of the world. In 2000 shale gas provided only 1% of U.S. natural gas production; by 2010 it was over 20% and the U.S. government’s Energy Information Administration predicts that by 2035 46% of the United States’ natural gas supply will come from shale gas.
Of the natural gas consumed in the United States in 2009, 87% was produced domestically; thus, the supply of natural gas is not as dependent on foreign producers as is the supply of crude oil, and the delivery system is less subject to interruption. The availability of large quantities of shale gas will further allow the United States to consume a predominantly domestic supply of gas. According to the EIA Annual Energy Outlook 2011, the United States possesses 2,552 trillion cubic feet (Tcf) of potential natural gas resources. Natural gas from shale resources, considered uneconomical just a few years ago, accounts for 827 Tcf of this resource estimate, more than double the estimate published last year. At the 2009 rate of U.S. consumption (about 22.8 Tcf per year), 2,552 Tcf of natural gas is enough to supply approximately 110 years of use. Shale gas resource and production estimates increased significantly between the 2010 and 2011 Outlook reports and are likely to increase further in the future.

What is a Shale “Play” ?
Shale gas is found in shale “plays,” which are shale formations containing significant accumulations of natural gas and which share similar geologic and geographic properties. A decade of production has come from the Barnett Shale play in Texas. Experience and information gained from developing the Barnett Shale have improved the efficiency of shale gas development around the country. Other important plays are the Marcellus Shale and Utica Shale in the eastern United States; and, the Haynesville Shale and Fayetteville Shale in Louisiana and Arkansas. Surveyors and geologists identify suitable well locations in areas with potential for economical gas production by using both surface-level observation techniques and computer-generated maps of the subsurface.
Two major drilling techniques are used to produce shale gas. Horizontal drilling is used to provide greater access to the gas trapped deep in the producing formation. First, a vertical well is drilled to the targeted rock formation. At the desired depth, the drill bit is turned to bore a well that stretches through the reservoir horizontally, exposing the well to more of the producing shale. Hydraulic fracturing (commonly called “fracking” or “hydrofracking”) is a technique in which water, chemicals, and sand are pumped into the well to unlock the hydrocarbons trapped in shale formations by opening cracks (fractures) in the rock and allowing natural gas to flow from the shale into the well. When used in conjunction with horizontal drilling, hydraulic fracturing enables gas producers to extract shale gas at reasonable cost. Without these techniques, natural gas does not flow to the well rapidly, and commercial quantities cannot be produced from shale.

Shale Gas vs Conventional Gas
Conventional gas reservoirs are created when natural gas migrates toward the Earth’s surface from an organic-rich source formation into highly permeable reservoir rock, where it is trapped by an overlying layer of impermeable rock. In contrast, shale gas resources form within the organic-rich shale source rock. The low permeability of the shale greatly inhibits the gas from migrating to more permeable reservoir rocks. Without horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing, shale gas production would not be economically feasible because the natural gas would not flow from the formation at high enough rates to justify the cost of drilling.
Natural gas is cleaner-burning than coal or oil. The combustion of natural gas emits significantly lower levels of key pollutants, including carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides, and sulfur dioxide, than does the combustion of coal or oil. When used in efficient combined-cycle power plants, natural gas combustion can emit less than half as much CO2 as coal combustion, per unit of energy released.

Environmental Concerns
However, there are some potential environmental issues that are also associated with the production of shale gas. Shale gas drilling has significant water supply issues. The drilling and fracturing of wells requires large amounts of water. In some areas of the country, significant use of water for shale gas production may affect the availability of water for other uses, and can affect aquatic habitats.
Drilling and fracturing also produce large amounts of wastewater, which may contain dissolved chemicals and other contaminants that require treatment before disposal or reuse. Because of the quantities of water used, and the complexities inherent in treating some of the chemicals used, wastewater treatment and disposal is an important and challenging issue.
If mismanaged, the hydraulic fracturing fluid can be released by spills, leaks, or various other exposure pathways. The use of potentially hazardous chemicals in the fracturing fluid means that any release of this fluid can result in the contamination of surrounding areas, including sources of drinking water, and can negatively impact natural habitats.