Summary: Fieldtrip Activity of GITMSC OF AAPG by Mr. Rasyid Mustafa (Lecturer at ITM), Takengon, Aceh, Indonesia, April 03rd, 2016

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Fieldtrip Activity of GITMSC OF AAPG by Mr. Rasyid Mustafa (Lecturer at ITM), Takengon, Aceh, Indonesia, April 03rd, 2016:

Fieldtrip that held on 03rd April, 2016 at Takengon, Aceh, Indonesia that have a title “Macro Fossil Identification and Determination of Depositional Environment” , followed by 42 students Geology, lecturer and include commitee of GITMSC OFF AAPG.The event that held by Executive Geology Institute Technology of Medan Student Chapter of American Association of Petroleum Geologists, this programme is held caused less knowledge about Communications Engineering Geology Applications in Macro Fossil Identification and Determination of Depositional Environment. In this event as speakers is Mr.Rasyid Mustafa as a lecturer in Istitute Technology of Medan and also as a senior geologist.

Macrofossils are preserved organic remains large enough to be visible without a microscope. Most fossils discussed in the article Fossil are macrofossils. The term macrofossil stands in opposition to the term microfossil. Microfossils, by contrast, require substantial magnification for evaluation by fossil-hunters or professional paleontologists. As a result, most fossils observed in the field and most “museum-quality” specimens are macrofossils and to fossilized remains of animals or plants should be immediately covered with sediment. By experts distinguish several kinds of fossils. There was the usual rock fossils, fossils formed in amber, fossils ter, such as that formed in the La Brea tar wells in California. Animal or plant that was presumed to be extinct, but there are still so-called living fossils. The most common fossil skeleton is left as shells, teeth and bones. Soft tissue fossils are very rare.

Fossilization is a process of accumulation of remains of animals or plants that accumulate in sediments or sediments either experiencing preservation as a whole, in part or in trace amounts, living fossil is a term used a species of life that resembles a species known only from fossils. Some include a living fossil coelacanth and ginkgo trees. Living fossils can also refer to a living species that do not have any other close species or a small group of close species that do not have other close species. Examples of this last criterion is the nautilus. Most fossils are found in sedimentary rocks (sediments) whose surface is open. Rock that contains many fossils called fosiliferus. Types of fossils contained in the rocks depending on the type of environment scientifically sediments deposited. Marine sediments, from the shoreline and shallow seas, usually contains the most fossils.

Fossils formed from the process of the destruction process relics of once-living organisms. This often happens when a plant or animal is buried in oxygen-free environment. The existing fossil rarely preserved in its original form. In some cases, the mineral content change chemically or their remnants dissolved all so it was replaced with mold. Illustration that describes the process of living beings that died were buried, become fossilized, and is found and the study of the remains of ancient organisms either fossils or traces of life called paleontology and for the other sciences, there is some science that is closely related to paleontology, among others:

  • Biostratigraphy

Biostratigraphy is the science of determining the age of rocks using fossils contained therein. Usually aim for the correlation, which indicates that a particular horizon in a geological section represent the same time period with another horizon in some other parts. Fossil useful because sediments of the same age can look completely different because of local variations in sedimentation environment. For example, a portion can be composed of clay and marl, while others are more limestone Kapuran, but if the content of the fossil species are similar, both these sediments may have been deposited at the same time. Ammonites, graptolites and trilobites are index fossils are widely used in biostratigraphy. Microfossils, such as acritarchs, chitinozoa, conodonts, cysts dinoflagellates, pollen, Sapura and foraminifera are also often used. Different fossils can function well on different aged sediments; eg trilobites, especially useful for old Cambrian sediments. To function properly, the fossils used must be widespread geographically, so that it can be in different places-many. They must also be short-lived as a species, so a period of time in which they can be incorporated into the sediment is relatively narrow, the longer the life time of species, the more inaccurate the correlation, so the fossils are evolving rapidly, such as ammonites, is preferable to form evolved much more slowly , as nautoloid.

  • Chronostratigraphy

Chronostratigraphy is a branch of stratigraphy that studies the life of rock strata in relation to time.

The main purpose of Chronostratigraphy is to arrange the order of precipitation and the settling time of the entire rock in a geological formation, and ultimately, the entire geologic record of Earth.

Standard stratigraphic nomenclature is a system that is based on the time interval Chronostratigraphy paleontology defined by a collection of fossils were recognized (biostratigraphy). Interest Chronostratigraphy is to provide a means for the determination of the age of this fossil collection interval.

  • mikropaleontologi

Mikropaleontologi is a branch of palaeontology that studies microfossils. Microfossils, fossil generally are sized no larger than four millimeters, and generally smaller than one millimeter, so as to learn it takes a light or electron microscope. Fossils that can be studied with the naked eye or with a small magnification power tool, such as a magnifying glass, can be grouped as makrofosil. Strictly speaking, it is difficult to determine whether an organism can be classified as microfossils or not, so there is no size limit is clear.

  • paleobotany

Paleobotany or palaeobotani (from a Greek word meaning old paleon and botany, the science of plants), is a branch of paleontology devoted to learning about plants in the past.

  • paleozoology

Paleozoology or palaeozoology where a branch of paleontology or paleobiology, which aims to find and identify fossils of multicellular systems geology or archeology, to use the fossil in environmental reconstruction and prehistoric ecology.

  • Palynology

Palynology is the study polinomorf current and fossils, including pollen, spores, dinoflagellates, cysts, acritarchs, chitinozoa, and scolecodont, along with particles of organic material and kerogen contained in sediments and sedimentary rocks.

This event can give a lot of opportunities for students to receive more knowledge and enhance their perception outside the classes about knowledge and also training in field of geology. We believe this program is important for those who want to be a geologist. It also give great opportunity to establish a good relationship among industry, AAPG, educational institution and students. Hopefully, this activity done well and will more knowledge to student about Macro Fossil Identification and Determination of Depositional Environment”, and get motivation or inspiration to can join in mining, oil and gas industry.

Support thank’s to AAPG, AAPG Asia Pacific Region, ITM, HMTG”TOBA”ITM, SM-IAGI ITM, and other.

Summary: Education Lesson Activity of GITMSC OF AAPG English Lesson Class 1 Year Program 2016 by Mr. Hidayat (Lecturer at University and Head of Chiness English school of Medan ), Medan, Indonesia, April 02nd – Present, 2016

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Summary Education Lesson Activity of GITMSC OF AAPG English Lesson Class 1 Year Program 2016 by Mr. Hidayat (Lecturer at University and Head of Chiness English school of Medan ), Medan, Indonesia, April 02nd – Present, 2016:

This first event for GITMSC of AAPG in 2016 about aducation program. Actually this event is a education event for all peope an all member in GITMSC OF AAPG with the aim to increase knowledge in the field of English language and can speak, listen, write very well when using English as a language of communication. We from GITMSC of AAPG held an event about “GITMSC OF AAPG English Lesson Class 1 Year Program” in Institute Technology of Medan. This event held on April 02nd 2016 until now wrere conducted in three sessions a week of learning in Class of Institute Technology of Medan, Medan, Indonesia. The activity has followed 20 participants (students) from Institute Technology of Medan, also members and executive commitee of GITMSC OF AAPG can be accepted on the written test results, and teacher for this program is Mr. Hidayat from of one of the institutions in the city of Medan and also a head chiness english school of medan.

This event we give a theme. This event theme is “Smart Thinking, Speak, and Learn in Our Life for Be Better Future” with purpose in order to better understand in speaking, listening, writing in the English language. Education is the process of facilitating learning, or the acquisition of knowledge, skills, values, beliefs, and habits. Educational methods include storytelling, discussion, teaching, training, and directed research. Education frequently takes place under the guidance of educators, but learners may also educate themselves. Education can take place in formal or informal settings and any experience that has a formative effect on the way one thinks, feels, or acts may be considered educational. The methodology of teaching is called pedagogy. Education commonly is divided formally into such stages as preschool or kindergarten, primary school, secondary school and then college, university, or apprenticeship and english is a West Germanic language that was first spoken in early medieval England and is now a global lingua franca. English is either the official language or an official language in almost 60 sovereign states. It is the most commonly spoken language in the United Kingdom, the United States, Canada, Australia, Ireland, and New Zealand, and it is widely spoken in some areas of the Caribbean, Africa, and South Asia, It is the third most common native language in the world, after Mandarin and Spanish, It is the most widely learned second language and is an official language of the United Nations, of the European Union, and of many other world and regional international organisations.

English has developed over the course of more than 1,400 years. The earliest forms of English, a set of Anglo-Frisian dialects brought to Great Britain by Anglo-Saxon settlers in the fifth century, are called Old English. Middle English began in the late 11th century with the Norman conquest of England. Early Modern English began in the late 15th century with the introduction of the printing press to London and the King James Bible as well as the Great Vowel Shift. Through the worldwide influence of the British Empire, modern English spread around the world from the 17th to mid-20th centuries. Through all types of printed and electronic media, as well as the emergence of the United States as a global superpower, English has become the leading language of international discourse and the lingua franca in many regions and in professional contexts such as science, navigation, and law. Modern English has little inflection compared with many other languages, and relies on auxiliary verbs and word order for the expression of complex tenses, aspect and mood, as well as passive constructions, interrogatives and some negation. Despite noticeable variation among the accents and dialects of English used in different countries and regions – in terms of phonetics and phonology, and sometimes also vocabulary, grammar and spelling – English speakers from around the world are able to communicate with one another effectively.

English is an Indo-European language, and belongs to the West Germanic group of the Germanic languages. Most closely related to English are the Frisian languages, and English and Frisian form the Anglo-Frisian subgroup within West Germanic. Old Saxon and its descendent Low German languages are also closely related, and sometimes Low German, English, and Frisian are grouped together as the Ingvaeonic or North Sea Germanic languages. Modern English descends from Middle English, which in turn descends from Old English. Particular dialects of Old and Middle English also developed into a number of other English (Anglic) languages, including Scots and the extinct Fingallian and Forth and Bargy (Yola) dialects of Ireland. English is classified as a Germanic language because it shares new language features (different from other Indo-European languages) with other Germanic languages such as Dutch, German, and Swedish. These shared innovations show that the languages have descended from a single common ancestor, which linguists call Proto-Germanic. Some shared features of Germanic languages are the use of modal verbs, the division of verbs into strong and weak classes, and the sound changes affecting Proto-Indo-European consonants, known as Grimm’s and Verner’s laws.

Support thank’s to AAPG, AAPG Asia Pacific Region, ITM, HMTG”TOBA”ITM, SM-IAGI ITM, and other.

END-MONTH REPORT GITMSC OF AAPG IN MARCH 2016

END-MONTH REPORT GITMSC OF AAPG IN MARCH 2016

First off all, we would like to praise God the Almighty for given us blessing so we could live in peace that GITMSC OF AAPG could deliver its activity. The End-Month report contains the summary of activities that are done in March 2016, the member lists, executive committee members, financial summary, and activity photo report. By the end of this month, GITMSC OF AAPG now has 207 active members, including all executive committees. The activities organized by GITMSC OF AAPG are Meeting, Short talk, Short Course, Guest Lecturer, Workshop, Field trip, Research, Excursion, Socialization, Visiting Program, Visiting Geoscience Program/VGP, Education Lesson, Competition Activity, Member Recruitment, and other, In total, we held 9 activities with 307 participants in march 2016.

We would like to say thanks for the support that has been given by AAPG, so GITMSC could do all the activities in march 2016. We are hoping the continuous support of AAPG can make GITMSC and its members become better to face the future in the minng, oil and gas industry.

Note: PDF Data.

Summary: Fieldtrip Activity of GITMSC OF AAPG by Mr. Rasyid Mustafa (Lecturer at ITM ), Tanjung Anom and Sunggal, Deli serdang, North Sumatera, Indonesia, March 27th, 2016

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Summary Fieldtrip Activity of GITMSC OF AAPG by Mr. Rasyid Mustafa (Lecturer at ITM ), Tanjung Anom and Sunggal, Deli serdang,  North Sumatera, Indonesia, March 27th, 2016:

Fieldtrip that held on 27th March, 2016 at Tanjung Anom and Sunggal, Deli Serdang, North Sumatera, Indonesia that have a title “Communications Engineering Geology Applications in the Identification and Calculation of Coal Reserves , followed by 45 students Geology, lecturer and include commitee of GITMSC OFF AAPG.The event that held by Executive Geology Institute Technology of Medan Student Chapter of American Association of Petroleum Geologists, this programme is held caused less knowledge about Communications Engineering Geology Applications in the Identification and Calculations of Coal Reserves. In this event as speakers is Mr.Rasyid Mustafa as a lecturer in Istitute Technology of Medan and also as a senior geologist.

Behind the inconsistencies in reported numbers are important distinctions in how we measure the coal underground – and the difference between what exists, and what can be mined. By almost any standards there is a lot of coal beneath the surface of the earth. The highest estimates put it at as much as 14.5 trillion tons. At the current rate of use this much coal would last for well over 2000 years. However, most estimates of the reserves to production ratio, a simple calculation of how long we could use coal at the current rate, fall in the range of 100-250 years. Even more pessimistic are recent studies suggesting that we might only be sure of having enough coal until 2030, or that coal production will peak around 2025 and decline thereafter. While part of this discrepancy is about the fundamental geological question of how much coal is in the ground, most of the difference comes from inconsistency in terminology and definitions and disagreements about economics. This article covers how measurements of coal resources and reserves are measured and described.

Coal-bearing areas, as determined from coal bed maps are to be measured to a precision of 2 percent or less. Such determinations may be made with a planimeter, with graph paper, with equally spaced dots, or with a computer. The most common instrument used for area determinations is the polar planimeter. In recent years the digital electronic planimeter has become increasingly popular. Prior to determining areas with a planimeter, a planimeter factor for acres or hectares, which depends upon the scale of the map used, must be ascertained. This is done according to instructions that accompany the planimeter. A similar factor must be determined if the graph paper technique of determining acreages is employed. After either factor is ascertained, the user is prepared to start measuring areas on the map and to convert the measurements using the appropriate planimeter or graph paper factor into acres or hectares. On many 7.5-minute quadrangles, several dozen to several hundred areas must be measured that are based on the many parameters into which coal-bearing areas can be categorized. These parameters may include thicknesses of coal and overburden; distance from points of coal thickness measurements (reliability categories); quality; physical characteristics; rank, land ownership by Federal, State, Indian, and local governments, companies, individuals, and other nations; county, State, and townships and ranges of the land classification system; quadrangle, coal field, basin, region, and province; legally and environmentally restricted areas, and others as desired.

A planimeter is accurate in measuring map areas ranging from several square inches to 20-30 square inches. Generally, planimetric measurements are repeated several times and then averaged. However, if readings are in disagreement by more than 2 percent, they should be repeated until an agreement of 2 percent, or less, is achieved. Map areas of less than 1 square inch commonly are not as precisely measurable with a planimeter as are larger map areas and must be remeasured and the planimeter vernier read many times to obtain an agreement within a 2-percent error. Estimates of the total coal tonnages in the following resource categories are required, where data are available, for adequate inventorying of county, State, and national coal resources: measured, indicated, inferred, and hypothetical resources; reserve base and inferred reserve base; and original resources and remaining resources. After the area underlain by coal, the average thickness of coal, and the weight of coal per unit volume for each category shown on a coal bed map have been determined, the tonnage can be estimated. The tonnage is estimated by the following formula:

A x B x C = tonnage of coal

where:

A = weighted average thickness of coal in inches, feet, centimeters, or meters,

B = weight of coal per appropriate unit volume in short or metric tons, and

C = area underlain by coal in acres or hectares.

This event can give a lot of opportunities for students to receive more knowledge and enhance their perception outside the classes about knowledge and also training in field of geology. We believe this program is important for those who want to be a geologist. It also give great opportunity to establish a good relationship among industry, AAPG, educational institution and students. Hopefully, this activity done well and will more knowledge to student about Communications Engineering Geology Applications in the Identification and Calculation of Coal Reserves”, and get motivation or inspiration to can join in mining, oil and gas industry.

Support thank’s to AAPG, AAPG Asia Pacific Region, ITM, HMTG”TOBA”ITM, SM-IAGI ITM, and other.

 

Summary: Joint Short Course Activity HMTG”TOBA” ITM, GITMSC OF AAPG, and SM-IAGI ITM by Mr. Benny Alizar Amin Pulungan (Senior Geologist at PT. Agincourt Resources Gold Mine), Medan, Indonesia, March 26th, 2016

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Summary Joint Short Course Activity HMTG”TOBA” ITM, GITMSC OF AAPG, and SM-IAGI ITM by Mr. Benny Alizar Amin Pulungan (Senior Geologist at PT. Agincourt Resources Gold Mine), Medan, Indonesia,  March 26th, 2016:

Short Course that held on 26th March, 2016 at the class room at Institute Technology of Medan, Medaan, Indonesia that have a title “Eksploration Gold and Copper in Indonesia”, followed by 70 students Geology, Mining (ITM and ISTP), and lecturer from two department.The event that held by Executive Geology Institute Technology of Medan Student Chapter of American Association of Petroleum Geologists, HMTG”TOBA” ITM and also SM-IAGI ITM, this programme is held caused less knowledge about Eksploration Gold and Copper in Indonesia. In this event as speakers is Mr. Benny Alizar Amin Pulungan from PT. AGINCOURT RESOURCES GOLD MINE. This Event is at opens by Faculty Advisor of GITMSC OF AAPG is Ir. Lismawaty MT, with proudly, she is say thank’s for PT. Agincourt Resources Gold Mine on come In Institute Technology of Medan for delivery information in really and that bloom to Student Geology and mining so that increase know about mining.

Mineral exploration is the process of finding ores (commercially viable concentrations of minerals) to mine. Mineral exploration is a much more intensive, organized and professional form of mineral prospecting and, though it frequently uses the services of prospecting, the process of mineral exploration on the whole is much more involved. Gold prospecting is the act of searching for new gold deposits. Methods used vary with the type of deposit sought and the resources of the prospector. Although traditionally a commercial activity, in some developed countries placer gold prospecting has also become a popular outdoor recreation. Prospectors for hardrock, or lode gold deposits, can use many tools. It is done at the simplest level by surface examination of rock outcrops, looking for exposures of mineral veins, hydrothermal alteration, or rock types known to host gold deposits. Field tools may be nothing more than a rock hammer and hand lens. Hardrock gold deposits are more varied in mineralogy and geology than placer deposits, and prospecting methods can be very different for different types of deposits. As with placer gold, the sophistication of methods used to prospect for hardrock gold vary with the financial resources of the prospector. Most gold today is produced in large open-pit and deep underground mines. However, small-scale gold mining is still common, especially in third-world countries.

Copper is a chemical element with symbol Cu and atomic number 29. It is a soft, malleable and ductile metal with very high thermal and electrical conductivity. A freshly exposed surface of pure copper has a reddish-orange color. It is used as a conductor of heat and electricity, as a building material, and as a constituent of various metal alloys. Copper is essential to all living organisms as a trace dietary mineral because it is a key constituent of the respiratory enzyme complex cytochrome c oxidase. In molluscs and crustacea copper is a constituent of the blood pigment hemocyanin, which is replaced by the iron-complexed hemoglobin in fish and other vertebrates. The main areas where copper is found in humans are liver, muscle and bone. The mining sector has made a very significant contribution to the Indonesian economy over the past several decades and will continue to do so for decades to come. According to a Fraser Institute survey, Indonesia is ranked amongst the top six countries in the world in terms of geological prospectivity. Indonesia is the seventh largest producer of both gold and coal in the world and the second-largest gold producer in Asia. Following the 10-year exodus of junior mining companies from Indonesia after the 1997 Asian economic crisis, Southern Arc’s management saw a unique window of opportunity. Acting quickly with a regionally-experienced team, Southern Arc became the first Canadian junior exploration company since 1997 to return to Indonesia and established a portfolio of exploration properties on Indonesia’s Lombok and Sumbawa islands. Indonesia hosts numerous large mineral deposits, including Newmont’s Batu Hijau copper-gold mine and Freeport’s giant Grasberg copper-gold mine. Grasberg produced 1.22 billion pounds of copper and1.79 million ounces of gold in 2010, making it the world’s largest gold mine and third largest copper mine. Newmont’s Batu Hijau mine produced 542 million pounds of copper and 737,000 ounces of gold in 2010, providing jobs for around 7,000 people who work directly for the mine or for contractors retained by Newmont to operate at the mine site. The Batu Hijau mine is a significant contributor to the local and national economy in Indonesia. Newmont has also reported plans to develop its Elang copper-gold porphyry deposit which is reported to contain 25 million ounces of gold and 16 billion pounds copper (Newmont press release February 2011). East Elang is located 63 km east of the Batu Hijau mine and adjoins Southern Arc’s East Elang property.  With decades of experience in Indonesian exploration and mining, Southern Arc’s management and directors provide an outstanding blend of experience and expertise to advance the company’s exploration and business objectives. Southern Arc’s management and directors bring a track record of achievements in international exploration, development, mining, engineering, company management, finance, acquisitions and administration.

This event can give a lot of opportunities for students to receive more knowledge and enhance their perception outside the classes about development mining and also training. We believe this program is important for those who want to be a geologist. It also give great opportunity to establish a good relationship among industry, AAPG, educational institution and students. Hopefully, this activity done well and will more knowledge to student about Short Course about Eksploration Gold and Copper in Indonesia”, and get motivation or inspiration to can join in mining industry.

Support thank’s to AAPG, AAPG Asia Pacific Region, ITM, HMTG”TOBA”ITM, SM-IAGI ITM, and other.

Summary: Meeting Activity of GITMSC OF AAPG, Medan, March 23th, 2016

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Summary Meeting Activity of GITMSC OF AAPG, Medan, March 23th, 2016:

Meeting activity in GITMSC OF AAPG on 23th March 2016 in Br 404 ITM student room, Medan, Indonesia and this meeting followed by 41 participants include committee.The participant are members of GITMSC OF AAPG.

As it continued to be discussed in the meeting, about:

  1. Discussion of evaluation work program GITMSC OF AAPG 2016.
  2. Discussion about GITMSC OF AAPG will make a short video for AAPG Video Conntest in deatline is May 06th, 2016.
  3. Discussion about GITMSC OF AAPG english lesson class program.
  4. The things develop.

Support thank’s to AAPG, AAPG Asia Pacific Region, ITM, HMTG”TOBA”ITM, SM-IAGI ITM, and other.

Summary: Guest Lecturer Activity of GITMSC OF AAPG by Mr. Dody Harysasmitha ( Guest Lecturer at ITM and Sedimentologist at GDA Consultant), Medan, Indonesia, March, 19th, 2016

This slideshow requires JavaScript.

Summary Guest Lecturer  Activity  of GITMSC OF AAPG by Mr. Dody Harysasmitha ( Guest Lecturer at ITM and Sedimentologist at GDA Consultant), Medan, Indonesia, March, 19th, 2016:

Guest Lecture held on 19th March, 2016 at Garuda Plaza Hotel, Medan, Indonesia that have a title “How to be A Sedimentologist , followed by 12 students Geology and include commitee of GITMSC OF AAPG.The event that held by Executive Geology Institute Technology of Medan Student Chapter of American Association of Petroleum Geologists, this programme is held caused less knowledge about How to be A Sedimentologist. In this event as speakers is Mr. Dody Harysasmitha as a guest lecturer in Istitute Technology of Medan and also a Sedimentologist at GDA Consultant.

Sedimentology encompasses the study of modern sediments such as sand, silt, and clay, and the processes that result in their formation (erosion and weathering), transport, deposition and diagenesis. Sedimentologists apply their understanding of modern processes to interpret geologic history through observations of sedimentary rocks and sedimentary structures. Sedimentary rocks cover up to 75% of the Earth’s surface, record much of the Earth’s history, and harbor the fossil record. Sedimentology is closely linked to stratigraphy, the study of the physical and temporal relationships between rock layers or strata. The premise that the processes affecting the earth today are the same as in the past is the basis for determining how sedimentary features in the rock record were formed. By comparing similar features today to features in the rock record – for example, by comparing modern sand dunes to dunes preserved in ancient aeolian sandstones – geologists reconstruct past environments.

Sedimentary rocks provide a multitude of products which modern and ancient society has come to utilise.

Art: marble, although a metamorphosed limestone, is an example of the use of sedimentary rocks in the pursuit of aesthetics and art

Architectural uses: stone derived from sedimentary rocks is used for dimension stone and in architecture, notably slate, a meta-shale, for roofing, sandstone for load-bearing buttresses

Ceramics and industrial materials: clay for pottery and ceramics including bricks; cement and lime derived from limestone.

Economic geology: sedimentary rocks host large deposits of SEDEX ore deposits of lead-zinc-silver, large deposits of copper, deposits of gold, tungsten, Uranium, and many other precious minerals, gemstones and industrial minerals including heavy mineral sands ore deposits

Energy: petroleum geology relies on the capacity of sedimentary rocks to generate deposits of petroleum oils. Coal and oil shale are found in sedimentary rocks. A large proportion of the world’s uranium energy resources are hosted within sedimentary successions.

Groundwater: sedimentary rocks contain a large proportion of the Earth’s groundwater aquifers. Our understanding of the extent of these aquifers and how much water can be withdrawn from them depends critically on our knowledge of the rocks that hold them (the reservoir).

The aim of sedimentology, studying sediments, is to derive information on the depositional conditions which acted to deposit the rock unit, and the relation of the individual rock units in a basin into a coherent understanding of the evolution of the sedimentary sequences and basins, and thus, the Earth’s geological history as a whole. The scientific basis of this is the principle of uniformitarianism, which states that the sediments within ancient sedimentary rocks were deposited in the same way as sediments which are being deposited at the Earth’s surface today. The principle of superposition is critical to the interpretation of sedimentary sequences, and in older metamorphic terrains or fold and thrust belts where sediments are often intensely folded or deformed, recognising younging indicators or graded bedding is critical to interpretation of the sedimentary section and often the deformation and metamorphic structure of the region. Folding in sediments is analysed with the principle of original horizontality, which states that sediments are deposited at their angle of repose which, for most types of sediment, is essentially horizontal. Thus, when the younging direction is known, the rocks can be “unfolded” and interpreted according to the contained sedimentary information. The principle of lateral continuity states that layers of sediment initially extend laterally in all directions unless obstructed by a physical object or topography. The principle of cross-cutting relationships states that whatever cuts across or intrudes into the layers of strata is younger than the layers of strata.

This event can give a lot of opportunities for students to receive more knowledge and enhance their perception outside the classes about development oil and gas company. We believe this program is important for those who want to be a geologist. It also give great opportunity to establish a good relationship among industry, AAPG, educational institution and students. Hopefully, this activity done well and will more knowledge to student about How to be A Sedimentologist”, and get motivation or inspiration to can join Oil and Gas Company after graduation.

Support thank’s to AAPG, AAPG Asia Pacific Region, ITM, HMTG”TOBA”ITM, SM-IAGI ITM, and other.